2012年天下硕士研讨生退学一致测验英语(一)真题及答案剖析_彩票2元网
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    [组图]2012年硕士研讨生测验英语一真题及答案剖析
2012年天下硕士研讨生退学一致测验英语(一)真题及答案剖析
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Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issue recently. The court cannot _1_ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law _2_ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that _3_ the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial.

Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court’s decisions will be _4_ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _5_by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself _6_to the code of conduct that _7_to the rest of the federal judiciary.
This and other similar cases _8_the question of whether there is still a _9_between the court and politics.
The framers of the Constitution envisioned law _10_having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions _11_they would be free to _12_ those in power and have no need to _13_ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _14_.
Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social _15_ like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _16_ is inescapably political-which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _17_ as unjust.
 The justices must _18_ doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _19_ to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _20_, convincing as law.

1. [A]emphasize           [B]maintain           [C]modify           [D] recognize

2. [A]when                [B]lest               [C]before           [D] unless

3. [A]restored            [B]weakened           [C]established      [D] eliminated

4. [A]challenged          [B]compromised        [C]suspected        [D] accepted

5. [A]advanced            [B]caught             [C]bound            [D]founded

6. [A]resistant           [B]subject            [C]immune           [D]prone

7. [A]resorts             [B]sticks             [C]loads            [D]applies

8. [A]evade               [B]raise              [C]deny             [D]settle

9. [A]line                [B]barrier            [C]similarity       [D]conflict

10. [A]by                 [B]as                 [C]though           [D]towards

11. [A]so                 [B]since              [C]provided         [D]though

12. [A]serve              [B]satisfy            [C]upset            [D]replace

13. [A]confirm            [B]express            [C]cultivate        [D]offer

14. [A]guarded            [B]followed           [C]studied          [D]tied

15. [A]concepts           [B]theories           [C]divisions        [D]conceptions

16. [A]excludes           [B]questions          [C]shapes           [D]controls

17. [A]dismissed          [B]released           [C]ranked           [D]distorted

18. [A]suppress           [B]exploit            [C]address          [D]ignore

19. [A]accessible         [B]amiable            [C]agreeable        [D]accountable

20. [A]by all mesns       [B]atall costs        [C]in a word        [D]as a result

 

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Come on –Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.

Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.

The idea seems promising,and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.

There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.


21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as

[A] a supplement to the social cure

[B] a stimulus to group dynamics

[C] an obstacle to school progress

[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors


22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should

[A] recruit professional advertisers

[B] learn from advertisers’ experience

[C] stay away from commercial advertisers

[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements


23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to

[A] adequately probe social and biological factors

[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure

[C] illustrate the functions of state funding

[D]produce a long-lasting social effect


24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors

[A] is harmful to our networks of friends

[B] will mislead behavioral studies

[C] occurs without our realizing it

[D] can produce negative health habits


25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is

[A] harmful

[B] desirable

[C] profound

[D] questionable


Text 2

    A deal is a deal-except, apparently ,when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the strict nuclear regulations.

    Instead, the company has done precisely what it had long promised it would not challenge the constitutionality of Vermont’s rules in the federal court, as part of a desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It’s a stunning move.

    The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont’s only nuclear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any extension of the plant’s license be subject to Vermont legislature’s approval. Then, too, the company went along.

    Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments, or it simply didn’t foresee what would happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’s management– especially after the company made misleading statements about the pipe. Enraged by Entergy’s behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an extension.

    Now the company is suddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power over nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the Supreme Court has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend. Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be beside the point.

    The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy are worth.


26. The phrase “reneging on”(Line 3.para.1) is closest in meaning to

[A] condemning.

[B] reaffirming.

[C] dishonoring.

[D] securing.

27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to

[A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators.

[B] seek favor from the federal legislature.

[C] acquire an extension of its business license .

[D] get permission to purchase a power plant.


28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its

[A] managerial practices.

[B] technical innovativeness.

[C] financial goals.

[D] business vision


29. In the author’s view, the Vermont case will test

[A] Entergy’s capacity to fulfill all its promises.

[B] the mature of states’ patchwork regulations.

[C] the federal authority over nuclear issues .

[D] the limits of states’ power over nuclear issues.


30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A] Entergy’s business elsewhere might be affected.

[B] the authority of the NRC will be defied.

[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application.

[D] Vermont’s reputation might be damaged.

Text 3

In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound.

Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point.

Once a discovery claim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the new discovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works it through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery.

Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or incorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation by future researchers. Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” But thinking what nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimes years are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated.

In the end, credibility “happens” to a discovery claim – a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. “We reason together, challenge, revise, and complete each other’s reasoning and each other’s conceptions of reason.”


31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its

[A] uncertainty and complexity.

[B] misconception and deceptiveness.

[C] logicality and objectivity.

[D] systematicness and regularity.

32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires

[A] strict inspection.

[B]shared efforts.

[C] individual wisdom.

[D]persistent innovation.


33.Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it

[A] has attracted the attention of the general public.

[B]has been examined by the scientific community.

[C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers.

[D]has been frequently quoted by peer scientists.


34. Albert Szent-Gy?rgyi would most likely agree that

[A] scientific claims will survive challenges.

[B]discoveries today inspire future research.

[C] efforts to make discoveries are justified.

[D]scientific work calls for a critical mind.


35.Which of the following would be the best title of the test?

[A] Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development.

[B]Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery.

[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science.

[D]Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science.


Text 4

If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant. When Hoffa’s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the number of unionists in America’s public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized.

There are three reasons for the public-sector unions’ thriving. First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America’s public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go back a long way. Britain’s Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions.

At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state’s budget is patrolled by unions. The teachers’ unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care.

In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly “backloaded” public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous.

Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.

As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too.

John Donahue at Harvard’s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers’ fat pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America.

36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that

[A] Teamsters still have a large body of members.

[B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant.

[C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership.

[D]the government has improved its relationship with unionists.


37. Which of the following is true of Paragraph 2?

[A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions.

[B] Education is required for public-sector union membership.

[C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions.

[D]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.


38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is

[A] illegally secured.

[B] indirectly augmented.

[C] excessively increased.

[D]fairly adjusted.


39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions

[A]often run against the current political system.

[B]can change people’s political attitudes.

[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.

[D]are dominant in the government.


40. John Donahue’s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of

[A]disapproval.

[B]appreciation.

[C]tolerance.

[D]indifference.

 

Part B

Directions:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)
   Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream come true.
   The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)
   The networked computer is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the mode of production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The computer is the 21st century's culture machine.
   But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also tread with caution. (42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers to upload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing.

   All animals download, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods - paintings, sculpture and architecture - and superfluous experiences - music, literature, religion and philosophy. (43)
   For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading material, a slightly larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content to just consume. (44)
   Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.
(45)
   What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of "stickiness" - creations and experiences to which others adhere.

[A] Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity.
[B] Applications like tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others.
[C] Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day.
[D] This is because the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading - between passive consumption and active creation - whose outcome will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine.
[E] The challenge the computer mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one format being replaced by another in the manner of record players being replaced by CD players.
[F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading.
[G]The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.

 

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
   Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.

(46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal.

This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features.(48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.

The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language—acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.

(49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints

Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals

 

Section III Writing


Part A51. Directions:

Some internationals students are coming to your university. Write them an email in the name of the Students’ Union to

1)extend your welcome and

2)provide some suggestions for their campus life here.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2.Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address(10 points)


Part B

52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should

1) describe the drawing briefly

2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2.(20 points)

 

    1.【答案】B

    【剖析】从空后信息可以看出,这句表达的是“_ _法官体现得像政治家”的状况下,法庭就不克不及坚持其作为执法法例的正当卫士的抽象,以是应该选C,maintain“维持,坚持”,其他显然语义欠亨。

    2.【答案】A

    【剖析】从第三段可以看出,文章以为法院和政治之间应该是有界线的。以是这里应该是当法官像政治家一样行事,含糊了二者之间的区别时,就得到了其作为执法卫士的正当性。只要B,when表现这个意思。

    3.【答案】B

    【剖析】第二段给的详细事例阐明,法官呈现在政治运动中会使法官抽象受损,影响他们独立、公平的名声。只要B,weaken能表现这个意思。

    4.【答案】D

    【剖析】绝后信息表现,法官列席政治运动会让法院的审讯收到影响,人们就会以为其审讯不公平,以是选D,be accepted as...“被以为是”。

    5.【答案】C

    【剖析】空地点的语境为:发生如许的题目,局部缘由在于“法官没有_ _品德标准”。后一句话说,至多法院应该恪守举动标准,这显然是进一步阐明上一句话。以是上一句是说法官没有遭到品德标准的束缚,选C,bound。

    6.【答案】B

    【剖析】依据剖析5可以看出,这里应该是说恪守举动标准,subject与to连用,表现“听从某物,受…支配”。故本题选B。

    7.【答案】D

    【剖析】剖析句子构造可知,这里是由that引导的定语从句修饰阐明后面的举动标准,是说法院也该当恪守实用于其他联邦法律部的举动标准。apply to “实用于”契合题意。resort to “告急于”;stick to “对峙(准绳等)”语意欠亨。

    8.【答案】B

    【剖析】空地点的语境为,相似如许的案例提出了如许一个题目:法院和政治之间能否还存在着界线。提出题目,发生题目用只能选raise。

    9.【答案】A

    【剖析】依据第8题可知,空内应填line,“界线”。 barrier “妨碍”,similarity“类似性”,conflict“抵触”都分歧题意。

    10.【答案】B

    【剖析】依据句意,宪法的草拟者们料想的是将法律从政治中分出来,让其享有独立的权利。envision as “将…想象成…”。以是选B。

    11.【答案】A

    【剖析】本题调查逻辑搭配。本选项答案确实定需联合前句意思,制宪者旨在使执法不受政治的任何影响,如许一来,法官就可以免受掌权者的影响了。此空便是调查由此所带来的后果,故选[A]。

    12.【答案】C

    【剖析】此题承接上题,可知执法不受政治的影响,从而法官也不必担忧掌权者(those in power)。

    13.【答案】C

    【剖析】此题承接上题, 联合句意, 可知该半句次要表达“法官也无需政治支持了。”选项C最符题意。

    14.【答案】D

    【剖析】此题调查词意辨析。原句表达“我们的执法体系是执法完全不受政治的影响,是由于这两者是严密。。。”。联合句意思,[D]最合题意.

    15.【答案】A

    【剖析】此题调查词意辨析。文中说“宪法具有政治性,是因其的选择都是植根于诸如自在,财富之类的根本社会。。。中。”自在,财富是东方社会的一些根本社会理念或观点,故选[A]。

    16.【答案】C

    【剖析】此题调查词意辨析。起首剖析该句,可知空缺处添加上一动词可组成肯定语从句,限定“the law”。其次,文中语境表达“当执法处置社会政策决议计划题目时,。。。的执法不行防止的具有政治性。四个选项中,[C]为最佳答案。

    17.【答案】A

    【剖析】此题调查词意辨析。可由文中语境得知,该半句次要表达“这也就表明了为何背叛头脑道路的决议计划被看作是不公平的,从而被随便的….”。联合语境,以及四个选项的意思,可知[A]最佳。

    18.【答案】C

    【剖析】此题调查词意辨析。由文中语境可知该句次要表达“法官必需。。。有关法庭(判决的)公平公道的质疑。”四个选项中,仅[C]契合题意。

  19.【答案】D

  【剖析】本题调查短语搭配及类似短语辨析。四个选项均可与连用,此中

  accessible to 易靠近的;可归属的;可失掉的可归因的

  amiable to可亲,多指人和颜悦色,易于靠近

  agreeable to怅然赞同的;合适的,适合的

  accountable to对…担任

  此题的了解需承接整个句, 起首此空地点后半句乃一方法状语,承接前半句阐明法官怎样来处理有关法庭(判决的)公平公道的质疑。将此四个选项辨别代入,可得出准确答案[D],法官只要对对举动原则担任,也便是遵照肯定的举动原则才可确保其判决的公平与公道。

  20.【答案】D

  【剖析】此题调查逻辑搭配。此句承接上句,旨在阐明由此带来的后果,也便是文中所说的“。。。使得判决看起来完全不受政治的影响,如执法普通令人服气。” 联合四个选项意思,可知选[D]。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.【答案】D

    【剖析】文章首段包括了两方面的内容,作者先复杂引见Peer pressure,再引出Tina Rosenberg在她的旧书Join the Club中关于peer pressure的见解,这篇文章因此一篇书评的方式呈现。而标题“依据第一段,搭档压力的呈现经常是…”问的仅仅是搭档压力,并无触及到Tina Rosenberg或许她的旧书,因而答案则应次要触及文章关于peer pressure的引见,而非Tina关于peer pressure的见解。首段第三句说“(搭档压力)通常惹起欠好的事变,如酗酒,嗑药,乱交”,故答案选D,阐明搭档压力呈现招致的后果,这里的答案运用了同义交换的方法。

  22.【答案】B

  【剖析】依据题干要害词“public-health advocates”可以定位到第三段最初一句话“Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure”,即应该向告白商学习,这里次要是关于短语“take a page from”的了解,答案选B

  23.【答案】A

  【剖析】依据题干“在作者看来,Rosenberg的书没能…”,所选答案是要找出作者看来这本书的缺陷是什么。文章第四段第一句话说“但是,在…方面,Rosenberg不太有压服力”,紧接着说“Join the Club中太多有关的细节,而关于使搭档压力能发生云云大作用的社会和生物要素并未做充足的探求”,这句话充沛阐明了在作者心目中这本书的缺乏在哪儿,故答案选A

  24.【答案】C

  【剖析】这是一道细节题。文章第五段首句通知我们peer groups的确会对举动发生很大的影响,第二句详细阐明影响的内容,即好的习气和欠好的习气都市经过社会外交在冤家圈中通报,最初一句则对这种影响停止了总结,“这是搭档压力的纤细体现,我们有意识地模拟一样平常所见到的举动”。而剖析题干和选项,我们发明该题是对“imitation of behavior”停止归结,回到原文,找到“我们有意识地模拟一样平常所见到的举动”,答案马上明晰,这里是对unconsciously一词停止了释义,因而C选项准确。

  25.【答案】D

  【剖析】这道题考察作者关于peer pressure所能带来的影响的态度,作者经过最初一段第一句话起首向我们标明他对“专家和其他官方职员能否能乐成选择搭档来引导他们的举动朝好的偏向开展”的不愿定,接上去以教员指点先生的例子为阐明,得出结论“The tactic never really works.”(这个战略历来没有真正起作用)。经过作者的如许一番描绘,可以看出,作者关于peer pressure能否能无效果是质疑的,故答案选D。

Text 2

  26.【答案】C

  【剖析】

  reneging 的本相是renege,本议是“食言”“否定”之意,为反向意义词。而四个选项中A 中的condemning 意为“非难”“处刑”B中的reaffirming 意为“重申”“再一定,再断言”,C中的dishonoring的意为“拒付,不兑付”,在意思和偏向上都契合,D中securing 意为“包管,使保险”的寄义。本文次要在说Entergy这个公司不兑现本人的信誉,以是应选C项。

  27.【答案】D

  【剖析】

  本题答案定位在文中第三段每二句话,As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale , the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. “as a condition of”可以了解为“为了”,D 项中的“purchase ”一词便是对文中“sale”的交换。

  28.【答案】A

  【剖析】

  题干:“依据第四段Entergy公司好像在它的····上存在着题目”,标题中已明晰把答案范畴确定在第四段,经过阅读第四段我们可以看到Entergy公司呈现了一系列的变乱“a string of accidents”,然后面的这句“raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’s safety and Entergy’s management”便是本题的答案地点了。此中 “managerial” “management”还是统一单词的变形。

  29.【答案】D

  【剖析】

  起首从题干晓得考察的是作者的观念。 “佛蒙特州事情”和will test在文章中的定位是在第5段第5句话,“Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend”意思是“佛蒙特州事情将会查验是这些权益延伸多远的先例”。这句话是legal scholars的观念。重点是了解certainly和but前面的意思。固然作者供认担心假如每个周同心同德的结果是公道的,但是But前面是个假造语气,与现实相反。以是作者的真正态度是支持legal scholars的观念,即佛蒙特州事情是对州法例的权限的磨练。How far those power extended与D选项的the limits of states’ power与选项D“各州在核题目上的权限”是相婚配的,因而准确答案为D。其他选项与“佛蒙特州事情”带来的查验,文中并未间接提及。

  30.【答案】A

  【剖析】

  最初一段次要讲的是“Entergy公司的声誉已严峻受创。该公司向联邦请求:答应Pilgrim核电站取得别的20年的开放权。但是作者以为,核办理委员会在考核该公司的请求的时分,务须要思索下该公司的信誉题目。”A选项“Entergy公司在别的中央的买卖将会遭到影响”由最初一段的第一句话“Entergy公司的声誉已严峻受创”就可以推测出来;B“核办理委员会的威望将会被蔑视”最初一段没给出任何要蔑视核办理委员会的暗含信息,因而B选项错误;C “Entergy公司将会撤回关于Pilgrim核电站的请求”,最初一段异样没给出相似的暗含信息;D “Vermont的名声将会遭到毁坏” 异样,从最初一段,基本无法推测出。因而,最佳答案是A。

  Text 3

  31.【答案】A

  【剖析】

  这篇文章选自The Scientist,文章标题是The Evolution of Credibility。文章第一段第二句话提到“But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route.",即在每天的迷信理论中,发明所遵照的纪律是不置可否和庞大的。A项uncertainty and complexity 是对文中ambiguous and complicated的同义交换,以是为准确答案。

  B项是应用文中最初一句话的搅扰“Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound”,这句话是说“有曲解和自我诈骗的能够”,从而招致了迷信发明的不置可否和庞大性;C项和D项是受文章第一句话的搅扰,但是第一句同时提出只要“在抱负中(in the idealized version of ...),迷信发明才干够很客观。

  32.【答案】B

  【剖析】

  第二段第二句中提到“But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to...”,此中it指的是将迷信发明取得大众可信度的进程。接上去的第四句话详细讲到了这个进程:“through which the individual researcher's me, here, now becomes the community's anyone, anywhere, anytime.”,即要阅历从团体到个人的进程,需求每团体配合的高兴,故答案为B。

  33.【答案】B

  【剖析】

  本段第三句话中提到“Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries”,即“研讨者需求在迷信集团庞大的社会构造中完成迷信发明”,在这句话的前面有一个分号,分号前面的三个短句辨别表明了在迷信集团中差别身份的人所做的差别任务,如新闻编辑者和批评家需求控制迷信发明地下的进程,而别的一些迷信家需求同过新的发明来证明已有的发明等。除此之外,最初一句话“transform an individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery”行将团体的发明转换为个人可信的迷信发明,故答案为B,即迷信发明取得大众的可信度需求个人的高兴和验证。

  答案A是应用本段首句设置的搅扰,属于客观臆断;答案C为搅扰项目,以偏概全;答案D文中没有提及。

  34.【答案】D

  【剖析】

  第四段次要讲到了迷信发明取得群众可信度的进程中面对的两个抵牾。Albert Szent-Gyorygi的观念次要针对第二个抵牾,即创新自身常常会惹起疑心。同时他以为迷信发明需求“seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought”,即看到每团体都曾经看到的,并想到他人没有想到的。这句话表示了迷信发明的进程需求有评判性思想,即我们应该去探求事物。故答案为D。

  答案A与本段中讲到的第一个抵牾有关;答案B的过渡推测来自本段最初一句话,这句话的意思是,真正有创新的发明需求工夫的验证来失掉大众的承认。答案C文中没有提到,属于客观臆断。

  35.【答案】C

  【剖析】

  此题调查对全文宗旨粗心的精确归结。从整个文章头绪来看,文章第一段指出任何发明终极的目的是使之客观化,但是此进程或多或少会遭到差别的生存情况的影响;第二段指出这个进程需求大众配合的高兴;第三段详细阐述了差别的人在这个进程中需求完成的任务;第四段则提出了使迷信发明取得可信度的进程中所遇到的两个抵牾;最初一段用Annette Baier的一句话总结了这个进程。由此可知,C项统领全文,为准确答案。答案A项与原文不符;答案B 是第二段中提到的一局部;而答案D只是对第四段的归纳综合

Text 4

  36.【答案】C

  【剖析】

  依据题干定位于第一段When …were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. 意思是1960年时,美国当局部分只要1/10的人是工会成员,但是如今比例是36%。以是C选项准确:工会添加了当局部分成员。A选项:Teamster 依然拥有许多成员。文中只提到了比例,并没有讲详细人数;B:吉米过来是一个公仆。而文中第一句是一个假造语气的句子,“假如他还在世的话,他明天能够代表一名公仆”,误解文意;D:当局改进了与社团的干系。文中并未提及。

  37.【答案】D

  【剖析】

  该题很容易依据题干定位于第二段。第二段中有很分明的first, second, third这些词,属于典范的罗列处,最容易出细节题。只需求将各选项与这三点细心比对即可。A 大众部分构造在接纳举动时很慎重文中并示提及,是对“they now dominate left-of-centre politics”这句话设置的搅扰项,“右派”为保守派,不行能慎重;而B错在教诲不是需求的,而是公事员社团成员受教诲水平广泛偏高,并非必须;C工党临时与公事员社团争斗,该段倒数第二句指收工会与社团不断有联络,最初一句讲到工会向导Miliband荣登宝座正是由于公事员社团的鼎力支持,因而与原文相悖;D选项为First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences.这句话的同义改写。意思是“他们可以相安无事并不必蒙受欠好的结果”。

  38.【答案】B

  【剖析】

  该题很容易定位于文章的第四段。题干是“国度部分职员的人为情况是”。做这道题要把第四段全体了解。留意But前面的内容,尤其是keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous。粗心是大众部分员工的人为涨幅很小,但是节沐日福利补助许多。B选项的indirectly augment意思是“直接地添加”。和原文意思“私有部分职员的支出是泉源于福利等直接支出,而非正常的人为支出”契合。A 经过合法得来文中只提到了国度部分职员的人为比公家企业的要高,整段都未提及泉源,故该选项属于过分推理;C 过分地增长文中并未提及增长的幅度,提到只是经过“暗厢操纵”的方法,容易使考消费生曲解;D 很公平地调解与“backloaded”不符。

  39.【答案】C

  【剖析】

  题干的意思是“举威斯康辛社团为例,标明社团_______”。该题依据题干中的专著名词Wisconsin定位于倒数第二段。由题干可知这是一个例证题,以是需求看文章的第五段。第五段首句Reform has been vigorously opposed。从第六段Wisconsin的例子可以看出,工汇集合众人支持共和党向导人Scott Walker,正是为了支持变革。以是可以晓得工会能够是大众部分变革的一个妨碍,C为准确选项。A 常常与以后政治体系对立文中并未反应often这个水平。B 可以改动人们的政治态度文中并示提及,D 在当局中占统治位置文中第二句讲到社团失掉了不计其数人的支持来凑合倔强的共和党州长,并不克不及推出该选项之意。

  40.【答案】A

  【剖析】

  文中人物的观念态度题。该题定位于最初一段,第一句话指出John以为东方大众效劳中的文明原则实用于想维持原状的人们而关于有比拟高成绩的人们就倒霉了,很分明持否认态度,最初再次指出不克不及造福于高成绩人们的大众效劳零碎关于美国能够是一个更大的费事,也再次证明了作者的观念是不支持的即A选项。disapproval“支持”,appreciation“欣赏”,tolerance“宽容”,indifference“淡漠”。

  Part B

  41.【答案】C

  【剖析】略读第一天然段得知这篇文章的主题是科技给人们的生存带来的便当,重点阐述了前言。此题空在末端,那么通读绝后的内容,可以找到特性词或许中心词“creat a fabulous machine”阅读七个选项,C项中的“develop such a device”恰好与此对应

  42.【答案】D

  【剖析】此题空在了段落的两头,需求在绝后和空后找联系关系词,绝后呈现了“reason”这个特性词,而空后呈现了“war”这个特性词,阅读七个选项,D项的“because”和“war”恰好与此对应,以是答案选D.

  43.【答案】A

  【剖析】此题空在段末,因而要在绝后以及下一天然段的段首找联系关系词,阅读绝后可以找到“superfluous material goods” ,而阅读下一天然段的句首可找到“download”这个词;那么阅读七个选项,答案A呈现了“these superfluous things”,接上去也提及到了“download”,因而可以锁定答案A.

  44.【答案】F

  【剖析】此题空在句末,以是需求阅读下绝后曩昔下一个天然段的句首,通读绝后的内容可以找到联系关系词“a pyramid of production remains,”,而下一个天然段的段首提到了“television”,那么阅读七个选项,跟此联系关系的有两项E和F,再持续剖析,E项只要“television”这个词与空后对应,而F项不只呈现了“television”这个词,并且呈现了“this pyramid of production”这个特性词,以是,答案为F.

  45.【答案】G

  【剖析】此题空在段末,那么需求阅读下绝后的句子,寻觅联系关系词,在B和G之间停止选择,通读可知,绝后的“flow”与G项的“the flow”是绝对应的,B项的“applications”在文中没有提及,以是此题锁定答案G

  Part C

  46. 【剖析】本句构造比拟复杂,它是一个复杂句,句子骨干构造是one approach takes…and seeks…。破折号前面的局部是对后面提到的实际的进一步表明。

  1)take …to extreme…把……发扬到极致,把。。。推至极限

  2)theory of everything万有实际。或许也可以一个短语翻译出来“实用于任何事物的实际”

  3)generative equation天生等式、天生方程。

  【参考译文】物理学中的一个实际把这种归一的激动发扬到了极致,它探寻一种万有实际----一个关于我们能看到的统统的天生方程式。

  剖析:

  47. 【剖析】对本句话的了解要害在于对for引导的句子的准确了解。由于有两个逗号,有的同窗在科场比拟告急的工夫和告急的形态下容易把两个逗号间的局部了解为拔出语,那么这句话就很难了解了。

  1)for 引导的句子表缘由与前句是并列干系,for缘由并列句中又包括一个if引导的条件状语从句

  2)“it seems reasonable to suppose that”对这句话的翻译可以翻译成一个长句,也可以离开翻译成“那么假定文明差别也可以追溯到更有限的源头, 这种假定看上去即是公道的了。”

  3)关于 “cultural diversit”的了解,我们容易遭到之前在备登科常常遇到的“cultural diversity”的影响,间接翻译成“文明多样性”,但在本文,前文许多次提到了个性,以是这里我们翻译为“文明差别”更适宜。

  【参考译文】在这里,达尔文主义好像提供了无力的来由,由于假如全人类有配合的来源,那么假定文明差别也可以追溯到更有限的源头仿佛便是公道的了。

48. 【剖析】这句话构造次要在于对三个“what”从句的了解。本题是三个what引导的从句第一个是what引导的宾语从句,做filter out 的宾语。第二个what是介词from的宾语,from 是牢固搭配中的介词filter out A from B。第三个what是understand的宾语,和how并列

  1)句子骨干可以看做:To filter out A from B enables us to understand C and D

  A指的是“what is contingent and unique”

  B指的是“what is shared” how complex cultural behaviour arose”

  C指的是“how complex cultural behaviour arose”

  D指的是“what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms”

  2)Filter out词组本意是滤失,。这个单词能够有同窗会不熟习,但是假如对本句构造了解清晰,看到from这个介词,加之对前文粗心的了解,我们可以猜出这个词的意思,或许了解为“区分”等也不影响全句的了解。以防止我们有的同窗看到第一个单词不看法立马生出的害怕心情,影响下文判别。

  【参考译文】把差别性和共同性从个性中过滤出来大概能让我们了解庞大的文明举动是怎样发生的,是什么从退化或认知范畴指点着它。

  49. 【剖析】本句构造比拟阴暗,要害是句子前局部独自很难了解,需求联合前文。这也恰好阐明了考研英语中的翻译起首是阅读了解的一局部,不是独自的翻译罢了。

  1)这里的the second与上文的“The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky,”,所里这里应该翻译成“第二种实际”以是这句话需求依据上下文和逻辑表明清晰。而不克不及单纯的翻译成第二。。。

  2)关于括号外部的处置,我们可以间接放在括号中即可。

  【参考译文】约书亚格林伯格为寻觅言语的个性而支付高兴提出了第二种实际。他接纳了一个更适用的个性实际,做法是识别出浩繁言语的共有特性(尤其是依照词序陈列),这些特性被以为代表了由认知范围招致的偏向。

  50. 【剖析】这句话的构造比拟复杂,庞大的是此中少量的术语和不熟习的词汇。关于这些词汇我们依据直译即可。

  本句构造:Chomsky’s grammar should show…, whereas Greenbergian….

  1)That引导的定语从句修饰patterns

  2)这里的“grammar”是指是上文的天生语法,以是这里可以把天生语法翻译出来。

  3)co-dependencies 这个词需求依据上下词义加之词根词缀来猜想出词义,由于下文指出是两者干系,以是可以翻译为“共存性”。

  【参考译文】乔姆斯基天生语法应该标明言语变革的形式,这些形式独立于族谱或贯串此中的途径,但是格林伯格的个性实际预测词序干系的特别种别之间(而不是其他)有着激烈的共存性。

 Section III Writing

    51.小作文

  【参考范文】

  Dear international students,

  I am the chairman of the Students’ Union. I’ve just received the emails from you and got the news that you will come to our university. Firstly, I’d like to show our warm welcome. On behalf of our university and all the students here, I really look forward to your coming.

  In order to make all of you feel at home, here are some conductive suggestions. Firstly, you’d better take some warm clothes with you because it is winter in China now and it is very cold in Beijing. Secondly, I advise you to prepare some relevant knowledge about Chinese culture for better understanding in class.

  I really hope you’ll find these proposals useful. And I’m looking forward to your coming!

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  52.大作文

  【参考范文】

  As can be clearly seen from the vivid picture, in front of a toppled bottel of which most water in it has flowed out, a man says “there is none left , how unlucky I am” looking rather upset, while another man quickly picked this bottle up, saying “I’m such a lucky dog, there is still some left”. How vivid the cartoon it is! The two men show quite different perspectives toward the same situation.

  The implication conveyed in this cartoon is that different perspectives we take to exam problems we confront lead to different attitutes or answers to these problems. In the first place, we’ll find the problem is very difficult to handle from the pessimistic perspective. However, if we change our way of observing problems, we may find that we can make some remedial work even to turn something bad into good. In this way, we can find solutions for any difficulties. Every coin has two sides. So why not change an angel to observe the problem we encounter?

  Whenever we face with the situation like the cartoon,what we should do is to observe it positively, especially when we are experiencing and encountering setbacks, only if we have the optimistic attitude, can we be bound to live a life of happiness

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